A History of the Global Economy: 1500 to the Present

A History of the Global Economy: 1500 to the Present

Why are some parts of the world poor today, while others are rich? At which point in time did they diverge, and what were the reasons? These core questions are addressed in a concise and accessible introduction to global economic development since 1500. Leading economic historians from across the globe provide overviews of major world regions together with global comparison chapters and case studies highlighting key themes, individuals, processes and events. Utilising a set of common development

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A History of the Global Economy: 1500 to the Present

The time being is a nightmare to all investors around the world. World index falls quicker and deeper than anyone ever could imagine. Writing this article in October 2008 we can see that fear and panic are spread even to common people. Is the global finance structure about to collapse? Is this the Doomsday? I will tell you how I think as a Psychic Spiritual Life Coach. You have to go back to the Depression in 1929 to find something this serious within the global economy. During that dark time in history when fortunes disappeared into nothing, investors killed themselves in desperation. Now and then, looking back in history, such collapses happen. From a Spiritual point of view, I announce that even the financial system has a soul which breathe and pulsate in its own rhythm, shown as wave patterns in for example stock charts. These historic wave patterns are well studied and researched among scientists. As an expert in the Law Of Attraction and as Spiritual Life Coach, I look at the world’s economic pulse and see a mirror of the way most people breathe. The connection between each and every persons breath and the breathing in the financial system is obvious. The financial state of health is ruled and attracted from the collective breathing pulse of humanity. A stressful person who breathe short and light will eventually have difficulties to breathe out. She will breathe in, in and in, not being able to fully breathe out. This is what happens with more and more people today. And that is also exactly how the financial situation has developed during the past years. As a result of this, a crisis-like event is happening in order to break the ongoing disharmony and force the breathless system to breath out long and deep, before it can go back to normal. Similar occurs in the majority of people on earth. When eventually more and more people return to a peaceful breathing rhythm, it will also be shown as a peaceful and balanced world economy, since they are a perfect mirror of each other’s state of mind. The best thing you can do for the world economy, from a spiritual point of view, is to calm down your own mind by improving your breathing ability. When enough people become calm and peaceful within their mind by adopting a slow and deep breathing rhythm, the impact of the financial structure will be shown as a natural consequence of the powerful Law Of Attraction. One way to improve your breathing is to practice the following exercise:
While counting to 4 seconds, take a deep breath.
While counting to 12 seconds, hold your breath.
While counting to 8 seconds, breath out fully.
Repeat this exercise at least ten times and do it three times every day.
If you are calm and peaceful, this exercise will be easy to do, if not, you probably need to calm down… And remember, each and one of us that breathe calm and peaceful will reflect peace and calm back to the global financial breathing pulse. Thank You! I Love You! All Is Well!
Lily OnEarth

Lily OnEarth is a clever Psychic Spiritual Life Coach and Healer. Before you move on, make sure you check out her Life Success Coachingprogram that works even better in bad times, as well as her freely shared advices at Law Of Attraction Treasury
The World Economy Crisis from a Spiritual point of view

Build Your Investments With Global Forex Trading

Global forex trading (forex, of course, meaning the foreign exchange market) has become more and more popular in the last few decades, mostly due to the advent of the global economy. Never before has our economy been so intertwined with every other country. It is perfectly common now for people to convert large amounts of money into various foreign currencies, then back again. The forex market is the largest market in the world, and includes everything from banks to governments to independent speculators. The daily volume of the global forex trading market exceeded four trillion dollars on average last year, making it a very attractive market to get involved in.

Several things separate global forex trading from other markets. Its trading volumes, the large number and variety of traders, the global dispersion, the variety of factors affecting exchange rates, low profit margins (but profits are often very high because of large volume trading), all contribute to make the global forex trading market the closest thing to the perfect competition. Foreign exchange has more than doubled since 2001.

Another way that global forex trading is separated from other markets, for example the stock market, is that it is divided into different levels of access. In the stock market, all competitors and investors have access to the same prices. In the global forex market, however, the inter-bank market is at the top. As the access level drops, the spread (that is the difference between the bid and ask price) widens, though it is still possible for a low-access individual to make large amounts of money.

While there is not a central market for forex traders, there is next to no cross-border regulation. Global forex trading is often referred to as OTC (over-the-counter), which makes for a large number of intertwined marketplaces. Therefore there is not so much a single exchange as a number of separate rates or prices, depending on which bank is doing the trading, and where it is. Differences in exchange rates are usually caused by changes in GDP (gross domestic product), inflation, interest rates, budget and trade deficits or surpluses, and other large-scale economic transactions and events.

Global forex trading is something not many people consider for investment (who would think that so much money lies in money), but worldwide forex trading continues to flourish for a reason. Individuals all over the globe are investing in the forex market and making thousands of dollars every day.

Find great information on the forex market. Rick Williamson researches investment information at Forexebookstore.com.
Build Your Investments With Global Forex Trading

How should the international community manage the risks of global climate change? Diplomats from 187 nations faced this question in December at the United Nations’ climate conference in Bali, Indonesia.

Their answer was a two-year plan for negotiating a new global climate policy that would start in 2013 – the year the Kyoto Protocol ends.

The “Bali Road Map” is intended to lead to an agreement on a global climate strategy. Key elements include a long-term goal for global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, commitments to reduce emissions by both developed and developing countries, programs to help countries cope with the effects of climate change, and incentives to accelerate the use of climate-friendly technologies.

Any agreements that emerge will affect all parts of society, but they will have an immediate impact on the energy industry. Most of the world’s energy still comes from carbon-based fuels. Policies designed to reduce emissions will fundamentally alter how the global economy is fueled in the future.

Global carbon dioxide (CO2) emission trends demonstrate the challenge ahead. Emissions have increased by almost 50 percent over the past 25 years, and Cambridge Energy Research Associates (CERA) projects that current energy investment patterns will lead to another 50 percent increase over the next quarter century.

This trend is a stark contrast to the recommendations of the Nobel Prize-winning Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change that global emissions should be reduced by at least half by 2050 to avoid significant impacts from climate change.

A variety of clean energy technologies provide a pathway to a low carbon energy future. But the challenges associated with moving these technologies into the mainstream are great. The ultimate emissions goals set for mid-century and beyond will be crucial for charting the world’s overall course on climate policy.

But the near-term commitments coming out of the Bali process will affect today’s investment decisions and the immediate path forward. CERA anticipates that future policies will be more evolutionary than revolutionary, building on experiments unfolding already across the globe. The wide range of approaches underway today offers a view of the future.

The European Union’s CO2 cap-and-trade program is the cornerstone of its climate policy. The E.U. policy places a ceiling – and cost – on CO2 emissions from the power and industrial sectors. The European Commission is now proposing to tighten the CO2 cap while also setting new targets for renewables and energy efficiency.

Overall, the E.U. has committed to reducing its emissions 20 percent below 1990 levels by 2020, with the target for reductions upped to 30 percent if other developed countries support similar goals.

One approach that can help to integrate different national policies is international GHG emissions trading.

In the United States, a variety of policies are under development at the state, regional and federal levels. A bill sponsored by Senators Joe Lieberman and John Warner would create a cap-and-trade program for the majority of U.S. emissions, including the power and transportation sectors. This measure, set for a vote in the Senate this year, proposes reducing emissions 20 percent below 2005 levels – which would bring them roughly to 1990 levels – by 2020.

China has established its first national climate strategy, including targets for renewables and energy efficiency, and agriculture and forestry programs.

The adoption of a national strategy highlights China’s increasing engagement around climate change. At the same time, China’s policy makers do not view near-term emissions caps as feasible, given their country’s increasing appetite for energy to fuel its growing economy.

A successfully negotiated global agreement must find a way to embrace these different approaches and starting points, while also narrowing differences over time. This will not be an easy task. One approach that can help to integrate different national policies is international GHG emissions trading.

Many forms of GHG markets are emerging across the globe. All are guided by the overarching principle of trading a “ton for a ton” – one ton of emissions reductions by one party is traded and used to offset one ton of emissions by another.

The basis of trading is that the cost of reducing emissions varies greatly across industries and regions. By finding and exploiting differences in costs, international GHG markets can integrate different climate policies and lower overall costs.

The existing Kyoto Protocol set up a number of markets to encourage investors to fund projects to reduce emissions. The most active such market is the Clean Development Mechanism, which applies to projects in developing countries. A whole new industry has emerged to develop and trade emissions credits under the Mechanism.

About 2.4 billion tons of reductions are currently under development, roughly equal to the annual emissions of the U.S. power sector. And the market is growing quickly, with 40 percent of these reductions proposed in 2007. China is the largest source, accounting for over 50 percent of these reductions, followed by India with 15 percent and Brazil with seven percent.

The outlook for this, and other, international GHG markets is uncertain after the Kyoto treaty expires in 2012. The future value of international credits hangs on the Bali process.

Will negotiators expand these markets? How will future commitments affect China’s role as a primary source for credits? And will future U.S. policy be compatible with existing international markets? Given the stakes, the international GHG markets will be watching the Bali process closely.

Carbon markets and emissions limits can direct investment toward currently available technologies, but they cannot ensure that new technologies will be adopted. Many of the technologies required for a low carbon energy future are not commercially viable today.

Sustained government support – ranging from the funding of research and demonstration projects to tax incentives and subsidies – will enable the long-term development of clean energy technology and provide important confidence for private investments. Government support also extends to addressing political, regulatory and legal hurdles that can slow the adoption of technologies.

The energy industry has many of the tools necessary for building a more sustainable global climate. The engagement and effectiveness of these tools will be shaped by how a global climate consensus guides national policies, international emissions trading and programs to advance low carbon technologies.

Daniel Yergin, chairman of CERA, received the Pulitzer Prize for “The Prize: The Epic Quest for Oil, Money & Power” and the United States Energy Award for lifelong achievements in energy and the promotion of international understanding. Vist CERA .
The Bali Road Map - Building a Global Climate Policy

Japan’s industrial output rose by more than expected in January, stoking hopes for an at least temporary pickup in the country’s factory activity. Coming in at 3.7%, the number beat consensus forecasts for a 3.3% increase but concerns have mounted over the lingering effects of notable global market nervousness and softening demand both at home and abroad.

The rise, the fastest gain since January last year, was led by auto production, electronic parts and machinery but did little to foster optimism among manufacturers whose expectations for the coming months remain subdued.

“The challenges facing Japan remain stubbornly difficult to address,” noted Harry Coolidge, a senior economist at Mizuho Corporate Global. “It appears that just as things seem to get going, something comes along – whether that be attributable to domestic or foreign factors – to pour cold water on any progress.”

Indeed, retail sales data for January appeared to confirm the negative sentiment falling 0.1% year on year and 1.1% month-to-month. The number served to highlight the weakness in private consumption, which makes up 60% of the Japanese economy.

The prospect of yet another technical recession – defined as two consecutive quarters of economic contraction – highlights the absence of a growth engine for Japan’s economy.

“This data will only increase expectations among investors for the Bank of Japan to ride to the rescue with more monetary stimulus in the form of quantitative easing despite the fact that it doesn’t appear to be trickling down to consumers. Many ordinary Japanese are tightening their belts as the cost of food and staples rise,” concluded Coolidge.

About Mizuho Corporate Global:
Mizuho Corporate Global is an independent, full-service brokerage, wealth management and business management concern dedicated to providing pioneering capital appreciation and wealth preservation solutions to affluent individuals and families and businesses.

Without exception, they place the welfare of their clients first and foremost and they take great pride in knowing that they are the first port of call for their investment and financial affairs. They constantly exceed our clients’ expectations by going the extra mile to deliver the service and, most importantly, the returns on investment their patronage demands.

1-6-41, Kounan, Minato-ku,
Tokyo, 108-0075
Telephone: +81-3-5782-8708
Facsimile: +81-3-5782-8707
Mizuho Corporate Global Reports Japan's Industrial Production Rises 3.7%

Outsourcing, Technology, and The Economy

Economies are constantly changing, and evolving. Whereas first they birth as a bartering system, they next take on a currency structure. This leads to a stock market, international trade, economic specialization, an industrial revolution, and forever continues to blossom.

Recently, economic rules that were thought to be ever enduring have been subject to change. No longer can an individual expect to be employed at a company for the entirety of their working life. Instead, career paths are now more flexible in society, and continue to be more so as technology and companies progress.

Outsourcing is one prime example of the evolution of industry. It has become common place among corporations, and the world is more of a global economy now than ever. The inevitability of outsourcing has led to an increased demand for items such as IT contracts or consulting contracts, and continues to create demand for advanced technology throughout various markets.

What is Outsourcing?

Outsourcing occurs when a business decides to contract out certain tasks or services to another business. For example, an auto manufacturer might outsource the production of seat belts to another company. Alternatively, a bank might want to let an insurance company sell its insurance products for them; or, a government might even allow a private company to pick up the garbage for the city. All are illustrations of outsourcing, and are becoming increasingly prevalent in today’s economy.

Outsourcing comes about as a result of economic necessity, and transpires when one company specializing in a service or product can perform or produce it more cost efficiently than a larger company. The project from the larger company is the outsourced to the more cost-efficient company. What many don’t realize is that it’s imperative to create IT contracts and consulting contracts when outsourcing for a successful business transaction

Technology and Outsourcing Create Demand

Because of the nature of information technology, items such as the IT contract and consulting contract have become a necessity. Since information technology fundamentally entails the transport of data from computer to computer, and often spans the globe, it’s viable for one company to perform information technology services for another country while distanced thousands of miles apart. IT contracts and consulting contracts reflect this reality, and are extremely effective in doing so.

Outsourcing makes economic sense, and its impact can only have a positive effect on the economy. In reality, outsourcing is one aspect of the economy which can actually help fight recession. As the economy exacerbates companies will strive to be more efficient. Those companies then outsource more to increase efficiency, and create more work throughout the global economy. IT contracts and consulting contracts are then put into play and reflect a solid business model for a struggling economy.

Regulations and Restrictions of Outsourcing

Recently, outsourcing overseas has become a major issue. Essentially, the debate centers on whether outsourcing is good for the American economy or whether it is causing it to plummet and costing hard working Americans their jobs. In order to regulate the amount of offshore outsourcing, U.S. government has put regulations and restrictions on the type of amount of outsourcing that a particular company can do.

Dependent on the nature of a company’s business, different regulations and restrictions may come into play. Some state legislatures have restricted both health care and finance companies from sending customer information overseas. Other companies, such as IT companies, are limited and many times restricted to the amount of work they send offshore.

As issues with offshore outsourcing become more complex, the restrictions and regulations by both state and federal government are bound to get more extensive.

A Change Has Got To Come

During most economic changes throughout history, there has been resistance and even protest. Some are willing to adapt and attempt to make things more resourceful, while others wish to stay traditional. Although change in the economic model is obviously necessary, it has to be timed and gradual. Otherwise, a company in North America that outsourced its IT contracts and consulting contracts to foreign countries not yet meeting modern economic standards could experience a drop in quality and service.

Overall, every possible aspect of outsourcing should be considered. As outsourcing forms the most recent change in the continually evolving world economy, it’s become especially important to our ever changing economy.

James Cochran is the founder of ContractEdge, an IT contracting company. Providing affordable legal contracts and agreements for IT professionals and contractors, they utilize particular provisions limited to the IT industry along with vital “boilerplate” requirements. Now the demand for legal software services is greater than ever.
Outsourcing, Technology, and The Economy
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